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x-posted to H-Women and H-SAWH Nolte's piece provided a useful general description of the four articles and raised some important points, but I think she may have given short shrift to Kathi Kern's _Perspectives_ piece on the American survey. As a grad student left to my own devices in teaching the first half of the US survey, I found that Kern's discussion of her changing strategies in devising a gendered (and "raced" and "classed") approach to the material both stimulated me to new approaches and reflected my own experiences with students' response to an inclusive survey. Kern argues, for instance, that when a gendered, multiculti approach to US history is presented as a fait accompli in the classroom (as, in effect, a new narrative) many students will rebel, and rightly so: Students in an intro class "may know very little history," she says, but they do believe that "they know what history is and what it is not. ... I had provided my students with an alternative narrative of the American past without first convincing them that the traditional narrative was problematic, or for that matter, that it was a _narrative_." Kern's response was to encourage the students themselves to wrestle with competing perspectives and analyses, to let them see first hand that every narrative must be constructed, and is thus subject to critique. Through this approach, she gendered the survey not just through the presentation of traditional women's history topics, but also implicitly in every discussion through the use of gender as an analytical lens and the bringing of the perspectives of female historical actors into play. Although Kern describes the use of historical simulations and similar devices, I think her basic prescription is no more complex (or revolutionary) than the substitution of discussion for lecture---"teaching the conflicts," as Gerald Graff calls it, getting students involved in the debates that excite us as historians. Teaching history by discussion may not be a new idea, but Kern makes a compelling case for the argument that it is nowhere more called for than in a classroom where history is "multiethnic, multiracial and multivocal." I would add that such an approach, in bringing out and encouraging _students_ varied voices, represents an opportunity to create a feminist and multicultural learning environment as well. Angus Johnston City University of New York Graduate School