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1. Ben Beede <email@example.com> 2. Ben Beede <firstname.lastname@example.org> 3. "Kuehn, John T CIV (US)" <email@example.com> 4. "Johnson, Stephen P Dr., OSD DPMO" <Stephen.P.Johnson@osd.mil> 5. Patrick Jennings <firstname.lastname@example.org> -----Message from: Ben Beede <email@example.com>----- Interesting question. You might try William A. Ganoe's The History of the United States Army (1942). Your university does not have a copy, but the University of Pittsburgh does. Evidently, the law was passed in 1912. Perhaps Henry L. Stimson had something to do with the law. He was Secretary of War 1911-1913. Possibly, a biography of someone like Leonard Wood might mention the matter. There is also a book about the army during the progressive period. Sorry, I do not have the exact title handy, but that might be a good bet. I shall do some more thinking. Ben Beede <firstname.lastname@example.org> -----Message from: Ben Beede <email@example.com>----- Have a better answer for you. Search Goggle with the words: MHI manchu law with quotation marks around "manchu law" and then go to pages 5 and 6 of the bibliography you will find there. Let me know if you have a problem. Several further sources are cited. Ben Beede Librarian Emeritus Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey Ben Beede <firstname.lastname@example.org> -----Message from: "Kuehn, John T CIV (US)" <email@example.com>----- Just a guess (or more officially a hypothesis), or rather a series of guesses. Boxer Rebellion??? Followed by Philippine War??? US in the Pacific?? John T. Kuehn, Ph.D. Associate Professor of Military History U.S. Army Command and General Staff College Fort Leavenworth, KS "Kuehn, John T CIV (US)" <firstname.lastname@example.org> -----Message from: "Johnson, Stephen P Dr., OSD DPMO" <Stephen.P.Johnson@osd.mil>----- The term refers to Article VI, paragraphs 39-40, Army Regulations 1910. - 39. In making details for special duty and detached service, due consideration will be given to the efficiency, zeal, and reliability of officers as evidenced by the record of their services. - 40. An officer will not be detached from his corps or arm of the service unless he has served at least two of the preceding six years therewith. When at any time an officer has served less than two of the preceding six years with his corps or arm of the service, he will be ordered to join said corps or arm of the service unless on detached service which, under the law, cannot be so terminated. Exceptions to this rule will not be made except in case of emergency or in time of war. The intent was to prevent the practice of officers serving large stretches of their military careers on detached duty away from the troops. If we think of long-time service in Washington, one can imagine it being great for promotion, while corrosive in terms of competence. Unfortunately, service in the nascent air arm also counted as detached service. The label "Manchus" referred to the recently deposed Manchu leaders in China who, like the U.S Army officers on the receiving end of this regulation, found themselves 'banished' from Peking (read Washington or detached service ) and assigned (read banished) to the comparative boondocks of an Army post. Best, Dr. Stephen P. Johnson Historian Defense POW/Missing Personnel Office (DPMO) Research and Analysis Directorate World War II Division "Johnson, Stephen P Dr., OSD DPMO" <Stephen.P.Johnson@osd.mil> -----Message from: Patrick Jennings <email@example.com>----- The Manchus were an ethnic minority that held a tremendous amount of power in Imperial China. Most Chinese thought them lazy, unqualified and over privileged. In the US the term Manchu was applied to any over-paid, lazy government worker (today we might call them "hacks"). As history would have it, the Chinese (very big in global news at the time because of continued unrest after the Boxer Rebellion) evicted the Manchu from power at the same time the Detached Service Law was passed. This law quickly became known as the "Manchu law." Many officers were pleased with this "revolution." One cavalryman wrote: "What is a Manchu in our service? He may be described as an officer with a penchant for revolving chair work and an aversion for troop duty, and who in pursuance of that policy rarely does any actual troop duty. The first orders for the eviction of the Manchus from Washington was synchronous with the revolution expelling the then reigning family from the throne of what is now the newest republic [China]. Hence, the designation 'Manchu.' " (H.R.H. [Captain Howard R. Hickok, Fifteenth Cavalry, one of Marshall's classmates at the Staff College in 1907–8], "The Manchus," Journal of the United States Cavalry Association 23[January 1913]: 697.) Patrick R. Jennings, Ph.D. Patrick Jennings <firstname.lastname@example.org> ----- For subscription help, go to: http://www.h-net.org/lists/help/ To change your subscription settings, go to http://h-net.msu.edu/cgi-bin/wa?SUBED1=h-war -----