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I have attempted to present the views that resistance is, in the end, a matter of choice, and that resistance cannot always be seen in terms of confrontations between military formations. Additionally, and for reasons outside the discussion, European Jewries were utterly unprepared for what happened to them in the period, 1933-1945. Not least, as Hannah Arendt wrote, European Jewries did not produce a large number of leaders _during_ the disaster -- that is, men and women who inspire us today with their courage and wisdom. (I shall repeat: It did not produce a _large number_, but it certainly did produce some.) An untold number of people, Jewish and non-Jewish, resisted in any way they could. For Jews, simply surviving can be considered a form of resistance. For non-Jews, simply behaving humanely towards victims was, I think, a form of resistance, given the propaganda that non-Jews constantly heard. As to the comment about people who today think about resistance during the Holocaust in the safety and comfort of "well air-conditioned" facilities, I would check my facts as to where individuals were at specific times. Some of us were not in Europe, we were in the Pacific, where we also knew the meaning of the term, "mortal terror." There was no place to run and hide, had we wanted to do so. True, we were heavily-armed, but let me assure readers, neither Americans nor Japanese had kindly feelings toward the other or wanted to keep prisoners alive. It should come as no surprise that soldiers in rifle companies frequently had brief military careers: within weeks -- and sometimes, within hours -- of arriving, many were dead or wounded. Men who fought in the Pacific Theater of Operations behaved in every conceivable way, and some behaved in ways that today strike me as inconceivable. How does this pertain to the Holocaust and to choice? Unless we wish to believe in a world in which Big Brothers decide for us how we will relate to and think about events, each individual must decide on their own options. I choose to think that it was right and reasonable for Americans to have fought the Japanese and not to have accepted early Japanese victories and made peace. Moreover, that those people fortunate enough to have grasped what fascists were up to and possess moral strength had an obligation to their country and to members of their particular group to act in accordance with these beliefs. With respect to the resistances of various peoples to genocide, I commend attention to what Germans had in mind for Slavs, who were also sub-human in the Nazi view, albeit not as sub-human as Jews. Slavs had the choice of submitting to the conqueror and becoming slaves or obeying Stalin, whose interest in preserving the lives of his people was not among his outstanding characteristics. Although millions of Slavs went over to the Germans, a larger number evidently fought the enemy to the death. We have ample reports of Slav resistance and prices Slavs paid to resist. I also commend attention to how various people, in and out of Bosnia, reacted to (and resisted) the genocide that occurred in the former Yugoslavia. Perhaps Bosnia has been more fortunate than Armenia or Biafra in finding writers willing to understand how ordinary people deal with situations when saddled with leaders whose personal ambitions determine national policies and lead to disaster. Finally, I think it important that at _the_ critical moment in Jewish history (until the Nazis, no conqueror had the industrial means to kill every Jewish person), European Jews were literally abandoned -- not only by "Christian" neighbors but by many of their own brethren. And I don't think it much helps to gloss over this understanding, whether seated in an air-conditioned building or some other setting. - Milton Goldin National Coalition of Independent Scholars (NCIS)