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John, Thanks for this info. I've done some research north of the border on awara (known also as k'waidak'wai) for an article in revision about soy daddawa and beancurd in West Africa. My understanding of the widespread term for the latter is that it is from the Yoruba "wara" for the unripened cheese common in sw Nigeria, Benin and Togo. The connection being that processing of the beancurd was presented at one point as an adaptation of the dairy cheese process (same curdling agent was used). One of the attractions was that the soybean-based product was much cheaper (about a third of the cost by one source) than the dairy cheese ... and tastewise it evidently had no problems. Although, as Nakamure Sule pointed out some time ago, a Japanese researcher named Osamu Nakayama played an important role in adapting the cheesemaking process to the making of beancurd, I would hesitate to suggest that the Japanese term is the source of what one hears in Nigeria & Niger, or even to imply that the method of preparing it is necessarily related (I realize you don't mean to say the latter). Nakayama himself said in an interview: "It's not true that soybean products have not been eaten in Nigeria in the past because they have a peculiar smell. It is because of how we tried to make the Nigerians eat soybeans. We pushed Japanese eating styles on the locals, which only made them reject soybeans. I showed Nigerians how to make tofu, but I left how to eat it up to them." Another difference between the beancurd making process in East Asia and West Africa is that, at least from what I'm aware of in Niger, the soybeans are first ground (when dry) and not soaked first. The beancurd making process has spread quite quickly and pretty much on its own, at least in Niger. The use of soybeans for daddawa (as a substitute for the seeds of Parkia biglobosa) has been a quiet evolution that goes back further in various parts of West Africa, but as far as I know, although it is mentioned in articles at various points in time, no one has tried to research that history in any detail. Don Osborn Wannan wasik'ar i-mel ce daga H-Hausa, inda za'a cigaba da hira game da harshe da al'adu da tarihi da sauran lamura na Hausawa da mak'wabtansu.