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Mahamane Mani, the coordinator of our language program here in Peace Corps/Niger, tells me that the "ne" is correct, referring to something else understood (e.g., "what you said is a lie"). ============================================= Date: Fri, 21 Mar 2003 15:35:06 -0500 From: "Ibrahim Hamza" <email@example.com> Subject: Re: grammar question In standard Hausa "karya' is considered a femine word and can be associated with a proverb that says "karya fure ta ke, ba ta 'ya'ya" (I don't want to bother you with an English translation of this proverb) but "karya' in this regard is a tree that has beautiful flowers that fail to bear edible or visible fruits (see Useful Trees of Northern Nigeria and Hausa Botanical Dictionary, please check the correct titles of these books). Therefore the feminity of karya is more recognised among Hausa "proper" speakers. Of course Zaria Hausa (or Zazzaganci)has been influenced by a number of "external" factors such as the "barikanchi" dialect, but of all the Chadic linguistic groups it is only Hausa that has gender reference to sentence and noun structure. "Mulki" and "Shugabanci" do not have the same meaning. "Mulki" I think is used to refer to governance regardless of its "adalci" whereas "shugabanci" is consdered more to do with responsible leadership notably under a charismatic figure e.g. Malam Aminu Kano was called "Shugaba Malam" among the NEPU/PRP supporters, whereas the Sardauna-led NPC was called "masu mulki" which includes "masu sarauta" as well. Therefore military regime means "mulkin sojoji" which does not qualify "shugabancin sojoji" and civilian administration "mulkin farar hula". When Nigerians say "mulkin Nigieria sai mai gaskiya" there could a clue that it is from "mai mulkin gaskiya" that a good "shugaba" leader might be found. Please forgive me should I become too generic. But "shugabanci" has more to do with "responsible leadership" against "mulki" which might be just administration or ruling against the general public opinion. Mu na neman karin bayani. Ibrahim Hamza York University Toronto, Canada. -- Wannan wasik'ar i-mel ce daga H-Hausa, inda za'a cigaba da hira game da harshe da al'adu da tarihi da sauran lamura na Hausawa da mak'wabtansu.