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This is my reply to Mark Lindsay who has posted re Karth Barth's lack of anti-Jewishness on both H-Holocaust and H-Antisemitism. On these two rocks of evidence, any defense of Karl Barth must founder: In 1942 Barth wrote that Judaism was "outmoded and superseded." Jews had revolted against God and therefore experienced "the sheer, stark judgment of God. . . . The Jews of the ghetto . . . have nothing to attest to the world but the shadow of the cross of Christ that falls upon them." Barth also wrote that "the reason for the grudge we bear the Jew [is] that he is a mirror in which we see ourselves as we are, i.e., we see how bad we all are." Sorry Mark, but there is just no getting around this theological antisemitism. You are wrong that Barth was not in theory an antisemite. Are one's published and public words not part and parcel of one's behavior? But the story does not rest with Barth. It is a much bigger problem, affecting Pius XII and the foremost Jesuit journal, Civilta Cattolica, as well as millions of other Christians at the time, in particular the theologians. Staying with Protestants, let me tell you a story. Richard Rubenstein interviewed Bishop Gruber (you mention his bureau) who shocked Rubenstein by restating that even though he, Gruber, helped Jews escape from the Nazis, still, years after the Holocaust, he condemned the Jews for their deicide of Christ. Gruber could therefore "understand" why the Jews were attacked and must suffer. This sounds awfully like St. Augustine's Witness People dogma to me. Similarly, Dietrich Bonhoeffer, who later helped Jews, in 1933 had defended the Nazi-sponsored boycott of Jewish stores in a lecture, arguing that "The state's measures against the Jewish people are connected . . . in a very special way with the Church. In the Church of Christ, we have never lost sight of the idea that the 'Chosen People,' that nailed the Savior of the world to the cross, must bear the curse of its action through a long history of suffering. . . . The conversion of Israel, this will mean the end of their suffering." (Bonhoeffer, Gesaemmelte Schriften, 2:49-50.) Martin Niemoeller in his radically antisemitic August 1935 sermon noted that the Jews would not be released from their suffering until they converted, Jewish suffering being "proof" that Jesus was God. The essential reason the Jews were cursed was because they "brought the Christ of God to the Cross." These kinds of statements are a result of traditional antisemitism, and beliefs such as these corrupted average people as well as the elite and made them all not just victims of Nazis but active or passive collaborators in the Holocaust. Sincerely, Robert Michael firstname.lastname@example.org