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<email@example.com> Perhaps Prof. Harrow is correct about an emerging situation of global English(es) and shifting patterns of more locally situated languages. However there remain a high percentage of people who speak neither English nor their country's official language (if other than English). So if one doesn't move towards greater use of indigenous languages - in more circumstances and to a greater extent than has previously been observed (albeit tailored to national/local circumstances) - it is hard to see first of all how basic education can be extended to significantly wider populations. And if one somehow could effectively extend schooling to every child in Africa only in their respective countries' official languages (along with perhaps "second" language and literacy education in those same languages to adults who left school early or never attended), I would imagine that the cultural disruption would be significant. The issue of "domesticating science" should be put back into context. Few people other than unusual sorts such as myself will muse publically about the possible use of non-dominant languages for research or instruction in higher education. Indeed, the context of Pres. Konare's remark that I quoted was the eminently reasonable program to begin the first three years of primary education in children's first languages (phasing in and then converting to French in later grades). Yet "domestication of science" resonates, I think, even more with some aspects of rural development, where "technology transfer" and even research on "indigenous knowledge" (IK) have tended to give only a minimal role to vernaculars. What would happen if rural people, who are less likely to have opportunities for dominant language education, were to have the opportunity to go beyond basic literacy in their languages? In parts of Mali, farmer literacy in Bambara facilitated their efforts to organize unions - an unforseen effect of past literacy programs. What if now IK documentation, research summaries, and development project reports were to be translated into terms that could be read (or read out loud) and understood - and commented on and discussed in villages? Or if farmers from one village could share in their own language their experience with their own or externally introduced innovations with farmers in another district (a kind of "farmer- to-farmer" exchange on paper, without the need to translate it first into and then back out of another language)? Could, would farmers "domesticate science and progress" in ways that respond to their own needs and aspirations? The issue of many languages in the same area, or in a small area (such as in a city) certainly raises significant practical problems to enhanced use of one or more of those languages, whether for education, "domestication of science", or anything else. One thing that interested me was what effect "localization" of ITCs might have on indigenous languages of Africa generally, including such situations. Finally, I should apologize that my software transformed the accented characters in the quote of Pres. Konare that I posted (e-aigu=3Di, e-grave=3Dh, & a-grave disappeared altogether). If it would be of interest, I could try reposting a slightly longer (1 paragraph) excerpt from another address which can handle the accents. ***** Editor's note: the problem was not with Don's software; unfortunately our listserv does not work consistently well with diacritics, which are often transformed into annoying nonsense characters (see above paragraph, for example); therefore, we try to edit out accents before posting messages to the list; Don's subsequent message, sans diacritics, follows ***** Here again is the statement by Pres. Konare of Mali concerning domestication of science in national languages, as printed in the Malian paper _Essor_ on 16 Nov. 1999. This time I've included the paragraph from which the excerpt was taken. Hopefully the accented characters will be transmitted properly (& the H-Africa editors will verify that before passing it on to the list). Apologies in advance for my inadequate English translation. "Pour nous Maliens et africains, l'enjeu d'aujourd'hui, c'est de penetrer dans la modernite a egalite avec les autres citoyens du monde, forts de nos diversites culturelles a l'heure d'une mondialisation reductrice. Pour ce faire, il n'y a pas d'autre voie que celle d'une ecole refondee ou l'acquisition et la restitution du savoir passe [sic] pour l'appropriation des concepts scientifiques dans nos langues, notre relation premiere et naturelle du monde. Si les adversaires acharnes de l'introduction de nos langues nationales dans l'univers academique hesitent encore a baisser les bras, qu'ils se souviennent simplement que dans la longue histoire de l'humanite, jamais aucun peuple n'a reussi domestiquer la science et le progres dans la langue d'autrui." [For us Malians and Africans, the stakes today, are to enter into modernity as equals of the other citizens of the world, strong in our cultural diversity at this time of reductionist globalization. To do this, there is no other way than that of an updated school where the acquisition and the restitution of knowledge pass for [through?] the appropriation of scientific concepts in our languages, our first and natural relationship to the world. If the strenuous opponents of the introduction of our national languages into the academic universe still hesitate to lower their arms, they should simply remember that, in the long history of humanity, never has any people succeeded in domesticating science and progress in the language of others.]