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Basharat.net <email@example.com> In the early to mid-19th century the Islam-inspired Fulani-ruled state referred to in the literature variously as Macina empire or Hamdallaye caliphate (in Fulfulde it's often referred to simply as Diina [faith]) instituted a land-use code intended to better regulate the interaction of farmers and herders. The Diina was centered on the inland Niger delta (central Mali), a riverine floodplain region that supports several kinds of farming, transhumant herding and fishing. This code, which in some (perhaps very large) measure incorporated earlier traditions and rules but could still be considered a reform, continues to be important in governing land use there. A lot has been written on this from diverse disciplinary perspectives, and mostly in French. I don't have access to my bibliographies now, but among the various ways of accessing or researching titles on the subject is the bibliography of my dissertation, "A political ecology of pastoralism in the inland Niger Delta of Mali" (Michigan State, 1997). The same region was subject to significant turmoil and population movement (some forced) following the Tukolor conquest in the latter half of the 19th century,and some resettlements back to previous communities following the French conquest at the end of the century.