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Michigan State University <email@example.com> This is quite a popular topic (what does that tell us?). Here are a couple more examples and then a few comments: * porto in Guinea (coastal and Fuuta Jalon at least). Although the etymology would seem evident, I believe some have tried to suggest other meanings * bruni in Ghana Noting the geographical ranges of use of the various terms, I wonder what a map of these usages would tell us about the currents of contact, trade, invasion and cultural influence. After spending some time in various parts of West Africa one notes the changes of use of different terms in subregions. As an American of European ancestry it kind of became a question of identity. I was called anasara / nasara in northern Togo and now in Niger. But I was tubab / tubaaku in Mali and Senegambia. And several different names closer to the coast. Some of the contributions to this thread point out the use of certain terms (& variants) across languages and countries elsewhere in the continent. Other terms like yovo, bruni, and porto / opoto are used over smaller areas. A map of where these various terms are used could be rather interesting ... What is the "meaning of white names in Africa" from a geographical perspective? It may be more interesting to take it a step further to other terms that find regional use. For instance, the range of use of "anasara" on such a map would probably coincide with the range of use of "kokari" (effort, courage, energy ) in greetings and expressions in Tem in Togo, Zarma & Hausa in Niger, probably other languages in the areas between. Could use of "anasara" and "kokari" (which I presume coming from the Hausa k'ok'ari?) reflect a range of Hausa influence? Or something more or different? When one crosses into the territory where "tubab" is used, the word kokari is apparently absent. Could one perhaps find other characteristic terms that cross linguistic and political boundaries? (Though none other than typical place names come readily to mind.)