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For the past 5 years, I've been on the faculty for the James Madison Memorial Fellowship Foundation's Summer Institute, which brings together teachers from all 50 states, DC, the territories and, lately, Iraq and Cuba as well. We get a mix of middle and high school teachers, from both public and private schools, all of whom are pursuing Masters degrees, usually in history or political science rather than in education. The seminar itself is an academically intense, month-long residential program. In theory, our mission is to give these teachers a state-of-the-art crash course in the founding era which they can then re-work and pass on to their own students. We don't create course material or curricula for secondary education. That said, discussions with my students about their students has led me to venture into 8th grade classrooms to experiment. As a result, I've adopted/been adopted by a pair of teachers at a local private school and together we've reworked their colonial curriculum (whose primary function was to provide background leading up to a simulation of the Continental Congress's debate over whether to declare independence). This more direct form of outreach, which has had me spending a substantial amount of time with the kids, has been a very intellectually challenging and rewarding enterprise. When you teach teachers (who, after all, aren't that different from the students you encounter in a university), you can take a lot for granted -- everything from the importance of the subject matter, to how various incidents connect, and even a certain vocabulary. You lose all of those crutches when you walk into a secondary school classroom. What's left is the task of making difficult ideas accessible and compelling, and of finding ways to show rather than just tell. Long story short, I used to think of outreach as a form of public service and/or self-defense (must create better-educated freshmen). Now I think it's an important and mutually beneficial form of intellectual discipline. Sue Hemberger Washington, DC