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The idea of "history from below", most often associated with the British Marxist historians (Christopher Hill, Rodney Hilton, Hobsbawm, Thompson, George rudé), actually seems to have been derived from the French historian of the Revolution Georges Lefebvre, who wrote historie d'en bas as early as 1924, when he published his doctoral thesis Les paysans du nord. I think the actual term "histoire d'en bas" only appeared in his writings from the 1930's, the most important of which have been published in the book Etudes sur la Révolution francaise (1954). There were close links between the French and British Marxist historians, though of course they did not agree on everything (se, e.g. the classic 1950's debate in Hilton, ed., The Transition from Feudalism to Capitalism) Lefebvre was inspired partly by elements of Marxism, but also through his early cooperation ink in Strassburg with Lucien Febvre and Marc Bloch. For more precise knowledge on the British Marxist context, one could consult Harvey J Kaye, The British Marxist Historians (1984). On the Febvre-Bloch-connection, i can recommend Peter Burke's and Troian Stoianovich's books on the Annales school. Hope this helps Bertel Nygaard PhD Scholar University of Aarhus, Denmark firstname.lastname@example.org